Sustainable Ecosystems

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Sustainable Ecosystems da Mind Map: Sustainable Ecosystems

1. Sustainability

1.1. Components of an Ecosystem

1.1.1. Abiotic Earth's Spheres Lithospheres Hydrosphere Atmosphere

1.1.2. Biotic Earth's Spheres Biosphere

1.2. Nutrient Cycles

1.2.1. Water Cycle

1.2.2. Nitrogen Cycle Nitrogen Fixation Nitrogen Fixing Bacteira Lightning Haber-Process Types of Nitrogen Nitrate Ammonium Ammonia

1.2.3. Carbon Cycle Photosynthesis Cellular Respiration Cellular Respiration Photosynthesis Human Interaction Greenhouse Effect Greenhouse Gases

1.2.4. Phosphorus Cycle Human Interaction Negative Effects of Agricultural Fertilizers

1.3. Trophic Levels

1.3.1. Producers

1.3.2. Consumers

1.3.3. Detritivores

1.3.4. Carnivores

1.3.5. Herbivores

1.3.6. Omnivores

1.3.7. Energy Flow Sun Primary Producer Herbivore Primary Consumer Carnivores Omnivores Secondary Comsumer Carnivores Omnivores Tertiary Consumer Carnivores Omnivores

1.4. Trophic Efficiency

1.4.1. Reasons for Loss Metabolic Functions Heat Waste Production

1.5. Bioaccumilation

1.6. Biomagnification

2. Ecological Niches

2.1. Population

2.1.1. Exponential Growth

2.1.2. Limiting Factors

2.1.3. Carrying Capacity Human Impact Urban Sprawl

2.2. Interactions Between Species

2.2.1. Predation Bottom-up Population Regulation Top-down Population Regulation

2.2.2. Competition Competition Causes Lower Birth Rates Narrowing of Niches

2.2.3. Symbiosis Mutualism Parasitism Commensalism

2.3. Human Niches & Populations

2.3.1. Ecological Footprints

2.3.2. Ecological Services Examples Forests Insects Migratory Birds Human Influence Ecotourism

2.3.3. Human Niche Unknown Carrying Capacity Narrow Niche

3. Biodiversity

3.1. Measuring

3.1.1. Biodiversity Hotspots

3.1.2. Methods Canopy Fogging Transect Sampling Quadrat Sampling Netting

3.2. Communities

3.2.1. Dominet Species

3.2.2. Keystone Species Captive Breeding

3.2.3. Ecosystem Engineers

3.3. Threats

3.3.1. Habitat Loss

3.3.2. Alien Species Invasive Species Introduction Deliberate Introduction Accidental Introduction

3.3.3. Overexplotation Mass Extinction Background Extinction

3.4. Restorative Ecology

3.4.1. Environmental Rehabilitation

3.4.2. Methods of Restoration Reforestation Wetland Restoration Controlling Alien Species Biocontrol Chemical Control Bioremediation Bioaugmentation