Laughter Out of Place

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Laughter Out of Place von Mind Map: Laughter Out of Place

1. Themes

1.1. Humor

1.1.1. Dark Humor

1.1.1.1. Zeca's death erection

1.2. Plight of the Poor

1.3. History of Brazil

2. Goldstein's Methodology

2.1. Participant Observation

2.1.1. Felicidade Eterna

2.1.1.1. Gloria's family

2.1.1.1.1. Celina's Death

2.1.1.1.2. Zeca's Death

2.1.1.2. Carnival

2.1.1.2.1. Brazillian orixa

3. Ch 2: The Aesthetics of Domination

3.1. The Struggle to Earn a Living Wage

3.1.1. Working for Dona Beth

3.1.1.1. Gloria makes 5 minimum wages

3.1.1.1.1. contrasts with other women in her community which only make 1-2

3.1.2. Difference between middle class and working class is the ability to hire domestic labor

3.2. Poverty in Brazil and Rio de Janeiro

3.2.1. Economy has been on the decline for many years

3.2.1.1. Domestic work

3.2.1.1.1. One of few employment options available

3.2.1.1.2. Low wages

3.2.2. Increasing feminization of workforce and growing participation of children in the economy

3.3. Class, Culture, and the Effects of Domination

3.3.1. Economy cannot absorb everyone

3.3.1.1. Forces women into domestic service

3.3.1.2. Social Apertheid

3.3.1.2.1. Creates an even larger rift between the classes

3.4. From Slavery to Servitude

3.4.1. Gloria recounts childhood to young adulthood

3.4.1.1. Servitude not that different from slavery

3.4.1.1.1. Servants not permitted to ate the same food as employers

3.4.1.1.2. Over a decade of employment and nothing to show for it

3.5. Colonial Rio de Janeiro

3.5.1. Parallels of domestic worker with slave

3.5.1.1. Domestic work perceived as dirty

3.5.1.1.1. Dirt

3.5.1.2. Class differences acutely present

3.5.1.2.1. Sexual services expected

3.5.1.2.2. Relationships between domestic works and employers not officially regulated

3.5.1.3. Economy used as an excuse

3.5.1.3.1. Perpetuates growing rift between lower class and upper classes

3.6. Para Ingles Ver, or For the English to See

3.6.1. Brazilian Identity

3.6.1.1. Elite class tried to hide certain aspects of Brazilian society

3.6.1.1.1. Afro-Brazilian

3.6.1.1.2. Mixed-race past

3.7. Private and Public Spaces

3.7.1. Typical middle class apartment

3.7.1.1. Three major areas designed to separate classes

3.7.1.1.1. The social zone

3.7.1.1.2. The intimate area

3.7.1.1.3. The service area

3.7.2. Gloria's refusal to accept someone like herself as being in a higher class

3.7.2.1. Nilda

3.7.2.1.1. Entered the middle class through marrage

3.8. Ambiguous Affections

3.8.1. Misunderstanding

3.8.1.1. Both Donna Goldstein and Dona Beth attempted to help Gloria's daughter rather than help her directly

3.8.2. Love/hate relationships

3.8.2.1. Employers recall fond memories of their servants

3.8.2.2. Employers commonly recount differences in speech between them and their servants

3.8.3. Concept of "Lower Other"

3.9. The Euphemization of Power Relations

3.9.1. Protection of class privilege is pervasive in public

3.9.1.1. Favelas pushed to the hillside

3.9.1.1.1. The poor should remain outside of cities

3.9.1.2. Public segregation between haves and have nots

3.9.1.3. Low intelligence of domestic workers commonly expressed by upper classes

3.10. A Game of Signs: Cultural Capital and the Reproduction of Class

3.10.1. Handwriting an important indicator of class

3.10.2. Working poor do not know how to act "appropriately"

3.10.3. Lack of understanding of how upper classes live

3.10.3.1. Going to a restaurant

3.11. The Limitations of Academic Capital

3.11.1. Class system in schools

3.11.1.1. Poor: Public

3.11.1.2. Middle and Upper classes: Private

3.11.2. Difficulty in making education a priority

3.11.2.1. Young girls often sent to work with their mother by the age of 10

3.11.3. Education as a vehicle for social mobility

3.11.3.1. Not a reality for many in the lower class

3.12. "Muchachas No More"

3.12.1. General resistance to status quo

3.12.1.1. New generation of women refusing to enter domestic work

3.12.1.1.1. instead finding work in factories

3.12.1.2. Alternatives to domestic service include prostitution

3.12.1.3. Gang culture among boys

3.13. The Laughter of a Community

3.13.1. Telenovela

3.13.1.1. Many in the low class find humor in the tragedies of the characters

4. Ch 3: Color-Blind Erotic Democracies, Black Consciousness Politics, and the Black Cinderellas of Felicidad Eterna

4.1. Race and Class in Brazil and the United States

4.1.1. United States

4.1.1.1. Class linked race

4.1.1.2. Formal civil rights movement

4.1.2. Brazil

4.1.2.1. Class linked to wealth

4.1.2.1.1. Not actually the case

4.1.2.2. General integration of races

4.2. Ana Flavia Pecanha Azeredo: A Black Cinderella?

4.2.1. She was assaulted for holding up an elevator by white middle class people

4.2.1.1. They thought that she was from the working class and didn't have the right to make them wait.

4.2.1.2. She was actually a governor's daughter

4.2.1.3. Revealed the growing problem of racial discrimination in Brazil

4.3. The "Treasure Chest Coup": Female Fantasies of Seducing the Coroa

4.3.1. "Whiteness" linked to greater opportunities for success

4.3.2. The fantasy of a beautiful woman seducing a rich man to achieve a better life

4.3.2.1. The woman is usually dark skinned and the man is light skinned

4.3.2.2. The woman is young and the man is old

4.3.3. Difficulty of social movement can be inferred from this concept

4.4. Representations and Commodifications of Black Bodies

4.4.1. The mulata seductress

4.4.1.1. Sybolic of Brazilian culture

4.4.1.1.1. "Tropical, sensual, untamed, and Brazilian. She is simultaneously both beautiful and dangerous ."

4.4.1.2. Concept may be a contributing factor in the justification for sexual assaults against black and mixed-race women in Brazil

4.4.1.3. Mulata strongly connected to pornography

4.4.2. Very little work done on representations of black and mixed-race women in Brazil

4.5. Brazilian Sexuality: History, Representation, and Scholarship

4.5.1. Romatization of mixed race sexual heritage

4.5.1.1. Likely a one sided relationship between white male colonists and dark indigenous women

4.5.1.2. Portuguese less racist than other Europeans and race mixing was more accepted

4.5.1.3. Gilberto Freyre

4.6. Discourses (and Silences) on Race

4.6.1. Much work done involving Brazilian sexuality in recent times

4.6.1.1. Little to discussion of race

4.6.1.1.1. cultural censorship

4.7. Hierarchies of Beauty and Social Mobility

4.7.1. Dark skin negatively valued

4.7.1.1. Kinky hair and flat noses are considered ugly

4.7.1.2. Gloria'a children were too black to attend the Xuxa modelling school

4.7.2. Erotic democracy

4.8. The coroa and the Ideology of Whitening

4.8.1. The dichotomy of African characteristics as being both ugly and also sexually appealing

4.8.1.1. Seducing a white man is seen as empowering

4.8.1.2. Afro-Brazilian women may not interpret many interactions as racist compared to men

4.8.1.3. Social mobility through marriage or through sexual service is a common theme in Brazil.

4.9. Two Kisses

4.9.1. Goldstein was kissed hello and goodbye

4.9.1.1. Brought about feelings of racism from Gloria and her friend

4.9.1.1.1. Neither was kissed

4.9.1.1.2. Many other forms of racial segregation are ignored

4.9.1.1.3. Sexuality is the one bridge low-income afro-Brazilians have to cross the gulf for segregation in Brazil.

4.10. Internalized Racism and Social Mobility

4.10.1. Gloria makes a racist joke

4.10.1.1. The premise of only joking hides her own feelings of racism

4.10.1.1.1. The color of her nephew's partner was too dark

4.10.1.1.2. The darker the skin, the less social mobility

4.11. Conclusions: Black Cinderella and Black Consciousness Politics

4.11.1. People are aware of Brazilian racism but are discouraged from speaking about it

4.11.2. The Black consciousness movement is not gaining the traction it should

5. Ch 4: No Time for Childhood

5.1. A Visit with Pedro Paulo at Ilha Grande Prison

5.1.1. Gloria's eldest son and leader of the red command gang

5.1.1.1. Has strong feelings against abortion

5.1.1.2. Preaches a double standard on fidelity in relationships

5.1.1.3. Pedro's anger was due to the realization that people of his race and background would never achieve "the good life"

5.1.1.3.1. Classic example of male oppositional culture

5.1.2. Goldstein was groped during the night and had to threaten to awake Gloria to save herself

5.1.3. Pedro was killed in a shootout only months after leaving prison

5.1.3.1. Gloria did not cry for her son

5.1.3.2. She lamented that she could not raise him better due to having to work so much

5.2. The Killing Streets

5.2.1. Trend of upper and middle classes to protect themselves with walls

5.2.2. Fear of crime led to the creation of death squads to remove street children

5.2.2.1. Candelaria killings: 7 boys killed in a spray of gunfire. Garnered international attention.

5.3. Home Children, Street Children, and Institutionalized Children

5.3.1. Street Children often recruited into lives of crime

5.3.2. These children are both victims of a broken system and perpetrators of criminal offenses

5.3.3. Concept of "home" vs. "street"

5.3.3.1. The extremely poor living conditions of households sometimes drive children into the streets

5.3.3.1.1. Some mothers resort to harsh disciplinarian methods to prevent this

5.4. Mirelli's Story

5.4.1. Her mother died at an early age and her father was unable to take care of her and her sisters

5.4.1.1. She grew up in FUNABEM a state institution

5.4.1.1.1. Horrible living conditions

5.5. Luca's Story

5.5.1. After his mother died, he was living in extreme poverty with relatives

5.5.1.1. If Gloria had not rescued him, he would have died

5.6. The Everyday Life of Children

5.6.1. Very long and boring days

5.6.2. Sometimes there were chances to bring money into the home

5.6.2.1. With so much time spent at work, it is difficult to instill values into children and many find life on the streets very attractive despite the best intentions

5.7. Throwing Out onto the Streets

5.7.1. This is an example of the often harsh punishments that are common among the lower class

5.7.2. Gloria's daughter Marta was exiled from the home when she threw a shoe at her cousin

5.7.2.1. This extreme punishment was seen as necessary because of the extremely cramped living conditions within Gloria's shack

5.7.3. There is little influence of psychotherapy among the lower class

5.8. Eating Shit in a Favela

5.8.1. After Lucas pooped in his bed, he was forced to eat it the following morning and say, "mmm"

5.8.2. Extreme discipline is a fact among the lower class in the favelas

5.9. The "Protection" of Children

5.9.1. The local street gangs have a reputation of protecting children

5.9.2. Gloria protects her children by beating the hell out of them so that they will one day lead honest lives

5.9.2.1. Being cruel in order to be kind

5.10. Childhood, Opposittional Culture, and the Idea of Resistance

5.10.1. Given the option of honest work that is more akin to slavery or the danger of gang life, many youths are choosing the latter

5.10.1.1. Homicide is the leading cause of death among young men between the ages of 15 and 24

5.11. Youth Culture and Resistance: Some Conclusions

5.11.1. Youth gangs are becoming increasingly dominant among the lower classes

5.11.1.1. So much so that the upper classes are turning their concerns towards them

5.11.2. Goldstein wonders if Gloria's disciplinary methods will really pay off in the long run

5.11.2.1. But there are not really any other choices until the socioeconomic situation in Brazil improves

6. Ch 5: State Terror, Gangs, and Everyday Violence in Rio de Janeiro

6.1. Crime and Violence in Rio de Janeiro

6.1.1. Crime is different depending on which social class you reside

6.1.1.1. The amount of random violence found in the favelas is greatly different from those in the more upper class areas

6.1.2. The idea of "elitist liberalism"

6.1.2.1. The rule of law is enforced differently depending on social class

6.2. The Local Gang and Its Leader

6.2.1. Dilmar

6.2.1.1. Remarkably normal, considering what a gang leader could be like

6.3. An Overview of Gangs

6.3.1. Drugs play an important role in gang activities

6.3.2. Gangs perform many other functions within their communities

6.3.2.1. Such as preventing outside gangs from coming in, settling disputes, acting as intermediates between police

6.3.3. Gang membership can seem seductive considering the painfully low wages available for honest work for the lower class

6.4. Drug-Trafficking Gangs in the Rio Context

6.4.1. The favelas undergo cycles of violence do gang presence

6.4.2. It is generally considered better to have local gangs rather than outside gangs

6.5. A Chronology of Police-Bandit Relations: Lulu and Ivo

6.5.1. Ivo was the original gang leader

6.5.1.1. He was shot in the face by a corrupt police officer, Lulu

6.5.1.1.1. Lulu was later murdered and people urinated on his face as he died

6.5.2. After the Ivo/Lulu era outside gangs entered

6.5.2.1. A new policeman, Braga, came in and removed them

6.5.2.1.1. Braga is fondly remembered

6.5.3. Dilmar became the new gang leader

6.5.3.1. Was accepted by the community because he was from their favela

6.5.3.1.1. Was murdered by his own gang members

6.5.4. Illustrates the feelings of residents towards gangs

6.5.4.1. Local grown gang members are tolerated while outsiders are not

6.6. A New Dono

6.6.1. No one could adequately replace Dilmar

6.6.1.1. The result was a minor gang war that went on for years

6.7. Bandits, Police, "Police-Bandits"

6.7.1. Police view the poor as criminals,

6.7.2. The poor view the police as colluding with with criminals

6.7.2.1. "police-bandit" coined to explain extreme corruption within police

6.8. Revenge Practices

6.8.1. Violence perpetrated by gangs and police considered ordinary buisness

6.8.2. Due to the blurring of roles between police, bandits, police-bandits, bandit-police, the rule of law does not exactly apply to the poor

6.9. The Solution of "Private" Matters

6.9.1. Often, gangs take on the role of peace keepers within their favelas in addition to their illegal activities

6.10. Sexual Abuse

6.10.1. In the case, a resident was holding his step daughters against their will and abusing them

6.10.1.1. The local gang came in, beat him and exiled him from the favela

6.10.1.1.1. This could have resulted in murder with the community still supporting the gang

6.11. A Case of Adultery

6.11.1. A man calls a gang into his private affairs to punish the man who was sleeping with his wife

6.11.1.1. Still angry and unsatisfied with the outcome he plans to rape that mans with along with an accomplice

6.11.1.1.1. When the gang intervenes again to stop the rape, they are forced to shoot the man raping the woman

6.11.2. The cycle of revenge can continue to escalate and become out of control

6.12. Gun Control

6.12.1. When a man was threatened by a gang for owning a gun he called the police for aid

6.12.1.1. They could offer him no lasting safety and he ended up having to support a rival gang to remove the first

6.12.2. Violence begets violence in this case

6.13. A Case of "Petty Theft"

6.13.1. The beating of a suspect is seen as merciful by the community because of the harsh justice enacted by the local caln

6.14. Solution for an Abusive and Adulterous Husband

6.14.1. Domestic violence was tempered through the threat of the victim's criminal brother

6.15. Rape of a Child

6.15.1. The lawlessness experienced by the residents of the favela enamors the them to the idea of retribution as long as the get the correct person

6.16. Alternative Justice in the "Brown Zones"

6.16.1. These Brown zones are areas where the state has very little penetration

6.16.1.1. This leads to citizens relying on gangs to provide alternate justice

6.16.2. The residents have little to no access to social institutions such as rule of law or healthcare

6.16.2.1. Despite commonly being the targets of police brutality, the poor are the strongest supporters of violent police activity

6.17. Policing in Brazil as Social Control of the Lower Classes

6.17.1. Due to the extreme inequality between classes in Brazil there is stark difference in homicide rates depending on which neighborhood people live

6.17.1.1. 0.22% in a low income neighborhood

6.17.1.2. 0.0043% in a high income neighborhood

6.17.1.3. The homicide rate has tripled from 1980 to 1995

6.17.2. Due to the extreme amount of violent crime the police response tends to be harsher

6.17.2.1. This leads to a common thread among lower class communities of distrusting police

6.18. A Note on Oppositional Culture

6.18.1. In response to institutionalized poverty many have decided to join gangs

6.18.1.1. These gangs have become a competitor to the state

6.19. The Disdain for the Police

6.19.1. Corruption and ordinary violence have been institutionalized and the poor bear the brunt of these failings

6.20. The Criminalization of the Poor

6.20.1. There is a difference between which segments of the population experience rule of law.

6.20.1.1. The two characters of crime, "the policeman" and "the criminal" are not opposed but are compared

6.20.2. The elite and middle class experience traditional rule of law while the low class in the favelas do not

6.21. "Parallel States"

6.21.1. Due to the absent state, local gangs have filled that role and created a parallel state

6.22. State and Bandits as Perpetrators of Violence

6.22.1. The emergence of organized crime can be explained via 1 of 2 theories

6.22.1.1. The government is corrupt and allows organized crime to flourish

6.22.1.2. The government in ineffectual and in it's absence, organized crime can take place

6.23. Returning to the Murder: The Death of Adilson

6.23.1. Adilson was the father of Gloria's grandson

6.23.1.1. He was involved in gangs during his youth but had left that life to pursue fatherhood

6.23.1.2. He was witness to a revenge killing which was in response to an accidental death

6.23.1.2.1. He was killed in revenge for the revenge killing

6.24. Women, Oppositional Culture, and Religious Conversion

6.24.1. Religious conversion is seen as perhaps a way to distance oneself from the constant danger and violence of the favelas

7. Ch 6: Partial truths, or the Carnivalization of Desire

7.1. Sexuality in the Context of Local Culture

7.1.1. There are many pitfalls in discussing sexuality within an impoverished population

7.1.1.1. The conclusions drawn can be inappropriately used to control or revictomize

7.2. Discourses of Sex-Positiveness

7.2.1. Sexuality plays a central role to social life

7.2.2. "Cariocas posses an open, permissive approach to the sexuality"

7.2.2.1. Even elderly Brazilians

7.2.3. Many aspects of sexuality are hidden however

7.2.3.1. Attitudes towards homosexuality

7.2.3.2. The double standard on fidelity between genders

7.2.3.3. Transgender individuals still make people uncomfortable

7.3. The Carnivalization of Desire

7.3.1. Brazil feels like an eroticized "tropical paradise"

7.3.2. Sexuality permeates how people express themselves

7.3.3. While public flirtations and cat calls would be considered harassment in the US, many Brazilian women claim that they enjoy it

7.3.4. American feminism seen as sex-negative to brazilians

7.3.4.1. Therefore less work on gender and sexuality from faminists

7.3.5. Major work done on Brazilian male homosexual relations.

7.3.5.1. May have overshadowed research on"normal" hetero relations

7.3.5.2. Afro-Brazilian women viewed as second-class sexual citizens

7.4. Ethenography: Local Sexual Culture in Felicidade Eterna

7.4.1. Sexual roles determined by active and passive roles

7.4.1.1. Applies to both hetero and home relations

7.4.2. Common metaphor involves eating

7.4.2.1. Active: eater/ consumer

7.4.2.2. Passive: giver/ allowed to be eaten

7.4.3. The eating metaphor is subverted often to empower women

7.4.3.1. ex. Ze eating more than his fair share

7.4.3.2. Expectation for men to provide food

7.4.4. Men are seen as unfaithful

7.4.4.1. Seen as a social norm and accepted begrudgingly

7.4.4.1.1. Women are expected to be loyal and receive uneven amount of shame for seeing other people

7.5. From Boys to Men: Normative Masculinization and Heterosexuality

7.5.1. Males expected to be the pursuers in regards to sex

7.5.1.1. ex. Gloria wanted her son to see a prostitute because he was too old to not have had a sexual experience

7.5.2. Young males are expected to be sexually experienced, while young girls are expected to be sexually inexperienced

7.5.3. Gloria's son Tiago was teased for being helpful around the household and not being masculine enough

7.6. Sacabagem, Transgression, and Female Boundary-Setting

7.6.1. "notions of aggression and hostility, play and amusement, sexual excitement and erotic practice in a single symbolic complex"

7.6.1.1. Men are cast as transgressors

7.6.1.2. Women are cast as sexual-boundary setters

7.7. A Joke That Even Gloria Did Not Find Funny

7.7.1. Strong negative social beliefs about stepfathers

7.7.1.1. Counterintuitively many accounts of sexual abuse by stepfathers on children result with the man being forgiven and the child being blamed

7.7.2. Men outside of the family unit are seen as dangerous

7.7.2.1. Filmena ( Gloria's daughter who was banished from the home) was sexually accosted by a man while staying with her boyfriend

7.8. Partial Truths

7.8.1. Poorest class appears to be unequipped to deal with social construction of the male transgressor

7.8.2. Women have to forced to be the regulators of male sexual behavior, but sex-positive culture has left them also unequipped

8. Ch 7: What's So Funny about Rape?

8.1. An Evening of Terror in Guque de Caxias

8.1.1. The night of the home invasion where two of Gloria's daughters were raped

8.1.1.1. The reason that Gloria moved back to a favela

8.1.2. Told as a humorous story because otherwise it would be unbearable

8.2. Soneca's Version of the Story

8.2.1. Soneca attempts to downplay Anita's rape because she was no longer a virgin and so the rape hurt less

8.2.1.1. The "joke" of the story was that even while being raped Anita was still more afraid of Gloria than the rapists

8.3. Battling Mothers and Daughters

8.3.1. The story of the rape became a vehicle for Anita and Gloria to air their grievances with each other through humor

8.3.2. Anita's retelling of the story

8.3.2.1. The overly strict rules of Gloria were exposed

8.3.2.2. The poor relationship between Gloria's lover, Ignacio, and her children was exposed

8.3.3. Gloria's retelling of the story

8.3.3.1. She criticized teen pregnancy

8.3.3.2. She criticized the economic support provided by men for their families

8.4. A Note on the Legal Universe and Rape

8.4.1. It is difficult for women in the low class to seek justice within the legal system for crimes of rape

8.4.1.1. This leaves many women in the lower classes unwilling to attempt to seek legal recompense

8.4.2. The courts still abide by anachronistic definitions of class, gender and sexuality

8.5. Black Humor as the Only Response

8.5.1. Black humor has "become a comprehensible response to a moral and legal system that is currently incapable of addressing the grievances of women in the dominated classes"

8.6. Conclusions

8.6.1. The stories of injustice presented in this book beg the question, "how can we fix this?"

8.6.1.1. Nothing short of a complete overhaul of government works and democratic reorganization

8.6.1.1.1. This process will take time