Laughter Out Of Place by Donna Goldstein

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Laughter Out Of Place by Donna Goldstein von Mind Map: Laughter Out Of Place                      by Donna Goldstein

1. Research Done In Brazil

1.1. Carolina Maria De Jesus

1.1.1. During the 1960's, a poor black woman published a personal diary that documents everyday life and her struggles

1.1.2. Quarto de Despejo

1.1.2.1. Put the poor Brazilian way of life together in perspective

1.2. 1 Million out of 10 Million residents in Rio de Janeiro live in favelas

1.3. Felicida de Eterna

1.3.1. Gloria's Shack

1.3.1.1. Unexpected news about Zeca's death

1.3.1.1.1. "Zeca’s tragic death lent itself to countless jokes, parodies, obscene gestures (including bulging eyes that go blind), stiff bodies and stiff sexual organs, doctors claiming their medical and class authority, chatting and smoking while a child dies." (page 38)

1.3.1.1.2. The doctors at the hospital diagnosed him with anemia falciforme (sickle-cell anemia)

1.3.1.1.3. Zeca was so sick for hours before his death. He wasn't able to make it to the bathroom and was covered in his own feces. Zeca fainted right outside of the bathroom door. The children and neighbors transported him to the hospital.

1.3.2. Gloria

1.3.2.1. Was a perfectionist

1.3.2.1.1. Waxed and polished the wooden floors

1.3.2.1.2. Sorting clothes into hand and machine wash for the laundry

1.3.2.1.3. Always washing dishes

1.4. AIDS Epidemic

1.4.1. Low Income Women

1.4.1.1. Interviews were taking place in Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo

1.4.1.2. Focused on women's sexual lives, histories, and their relationships with men

2. Brazilian Inhabitants

2.1. Judged by

2.1.1. Evaluation of skin color

2.1.2. Hair type

2.1.3. Facial features

2.1.4. Frustration with their relationships

2.2. Rio de Janerio

2.2.1. Outside City Center Characteristics

2.2.1.1. Highways are wider

2.2.1.2. Lush tropical hillsides

2.2.2. Moving Northward Toward Poor Neighborhoods

2.2.2.1. Factories

2.2.2.2. Car Dealerships

2.2.2.3. Mc Donald Restaurants

2.2.3. Poor Neighborhoods

2.2.3.1. Church

2.2.3.1.1. Mocoto

2.2.3.1.2. The Paraplegic Club

2.2.4. City of Contrasts

2.2.4.1. Poverty

2.2.4.2. Inequality

2.2.4.3. Racism

2.2.4.4. Violence

3. Culture

3.1. Celebrations

3.1.1. Carnival

3.1.1.1. Important holiday to Brazilians

3.1.1.1.1. "Transforming it from religious ritual to national metaphor. (page 32)

3.1.1.1.2. “Carnaval would be the clearest example in contemporary Brazilian life of those peculiar moments when a hidden tradition comes out of hiding and an entire society discovers and reinvents itself—when for a few brief days, myths of origin take shape in cultural performance, the past in- vades the present, and the sensuality of the body defies sin. It is a time when everything is permitted, when anything is possible” (page 32)

3.1.1.1.3. Lasts for 4 days, 5 nights out the entire year

3.1.1.1.4. One's place in society is determined by:

3.1.1.1.5. Reinforces class positions and gender and sexual hierarchies

3.1.1.1.6. Brazilian culture is celebrated with:

3.2. Mae Preta

3.2.1. Double meaning from Brazil's past of slavery

3.2.2. This shaped future colored race relations within the country

3.3. History

3.3.1. Dependency and Development in Latin America

3.3.1.1. Written by Fernando Henrique Cardoso in 1972

3.3.1.2. Pointed out the political struggles of the President of Brazil (1994 and 2002), also of distinct groups and classes. The classes had a past relationship of internal and external structures of domination

3.3.2. Colonial Era

3.3.2.1. Brazil and many other colonies in the Caribbean played a huge role in the sugar cane industry.

3.3.2.1.1. This industry helped imperial control and measured social behavior

3.3.2.1.2. Many of the colonies produced:

3.3.2.2. The Place of Sugar in Modern History by Sidney Mintz

3.3.2.2.1. Explores the role of how sugar played in world system since the 15th Century

3.3.3. Brazil's History

3.3.3.1. During the year of 1500, Pedro Alvares Cabral sailed to Brazil from Portugal

3.3.3.1.1. There were around 2 to 4 million Native Americans living there

3.3.3.1.2. Over time, the Portuguese made their presence noticeable through the domination between the French and Spanish in the New World

3.3.3.1.3. Land was granted in huge parcels extending to the coast inland

3.3.3.1.4. During this time, Brazil became the lead producer of sugar

3.3.3.1.5. Also, Brazil had the largest slave economy in the whole world

3.3.3.1.6. In 1813, the Slave Trade came to an end

3.3.3.1.7. Brazilian sugar was transported to Europe and European products went to Africa

3.3.3.1.8. During the 1800's, Brazil became the world's largest sugar exporter due to the growth of huge plantations being developed

3.3.3.1.9. During the 16th and 17th Century, cattle became a huge industry. It served as the sugar's competition

3.3.3.1.10. Sugar production, gold and diamond mines were dependent on African slave labor

3.3.3.1.11. During the early 1700's, Brazil became the world leader in Gold and Diamond production

3.3.3.2. Politics

3.3.3.2.1. Never developed a diversified economy which left the country"export- oriented" and a strictly enforced landowning system

3.3.3.2.2. By 1801, Brazil was earning 61% of its exports which earned Portugal its trade surplus

3.3.3.2.3. Due to Napolean's invasion of the Iberian peninsula in 1897, it forced the Portuguese monarchy and 10,000 of its members to flee Europe. This started the development of Rio de Janeiro

3.3.3.2.4. Different Political Groups in the 19th Century

3.3.3.2.5. Law of Free Womb (1871)

3.3.3.2.6. Passage of the Golden Law

3.3.3.2.7. Constitution of the New Brazilian Republic

3.3.3.2.8. 1880 to 1890

3.3.3.2.9. New Constitution (1988)

3.3.3.2.10. Conclusion

4. Power

4.1. Sahlins vs. Foucault

4.1.1. Foucault argues power is everywhere while Sahlins argues against the idea that culture is always power

4.2. Contemporary Hierarchies which are a product of history:

4.2.1. Class

4.2.2. Race

4.2.3. Gender

4.2.4. Violence

4.2.5. Sexuality

5. Humor

5.1. Represented throughout the book with "black humor" occurring across a broad range of classes

5.1.1. Sub task

5.2. "The elite classes exhibit a similar sense of black humor, and their stories reflect a knowledge of misery in their midst, but it is usually a distanced misery." (page 12)

5.2.1. Sub task

5.2.2. Sub task

5.2.3. Sub task

6. Laughter

6.1. Contains absurdity of the world that they inhabit

6.2. Unique form of protest

6.3. "Born with a gift of laugher and the sense that the world was mad." (page 13)