Local Babies, Global Science. Prologue & Chapter 1

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Local Babies, Global Science. Prologue & Chapter 1 von Mind Map: Local Babies, Global Science. Prologue & Chapter 1

1. Globalization & Transnationalism

1.1. Bounty of globalization: Inaccessable/unhelpful overcoming intractable infertility.

1.2. Many Egyptians "on the move".

1.2.1. Labor Migrants

1.2.2. Pilgrims

2. IVF and ICSI in Egypt

2.1. In-Vitro Fertilization

2.1.1. economic barriers contsrain access to IVF

2.2. intracytoplasmic sperm injection

2.3. Egyptians bring their own morals to bear on questions of scientific progress.

2.3.1. Egyptians can inform debates about the tensions between locality and globalization in science.

2.4. Social-cultural and ideological obstacles detract and deter Egyptians from using the new reproductive technologies.

2.5. Third world settings have been guilty of romanticizing reproductive agency at the expense of constraint.

2.6. New Reproductive technologies are viewed as morally threatening and disruptive.

2.7. Public, government-sponsored new reproductive technology services in Egypt are moribund, in not completely defunct.

3. Egypt: nation of 70 Million people.

3.1. 15th largest country in the world.

3.2. Infertility has never been included in Egypt's population program as a problem.

3.3. Married couples Infertility rate-12%

3.4. Cultural desire for (at least) 2 children

3.5. Egypt and Israel, 36 and 24 IVF centers respectively.

4. Infertility

4.1. No society can escape infertility.

4.2. Muslims make up between 29 and 44 million, more than half, of global infertility cases.

4.3. Muslims live in sub-saharan "infertility belt" with 32% infertility rate.

4.4. RTI's (reproductive tract infections) are the leading preventable cause of infertility.

4.5. Infectious infertility.

4.5.1. sexually transmitted infections

4.5.2. Postpartum complications

4.5.3. Postabortive complications.

4.5.4. unhygienic health care practices.

4.6. Tubal infertility

4.6.1. Single leading cause of female infertility

4.6.2. Cause: female circumcision practices.

4.6.3. Cause: inefficacious and iatrogenic biomedical practices.

4.7. considered "woman's problem"

4.7.1. despite high prevalence of male infertility.

4.8. Male infertility

4.8.1. Cause: Exposure to heat and chemicals in the workplace.

4.8.2. history of schistosomiasis infection.

4.8.3. Cause: Smoking

4.8.4. Cause: Arsenic and heavy metal exposure.

4.9. Can lead to mental, physical, and social suffering.

4.9.1. Highly gendered stigma and suffering accompanying infertility.

4.9.2. Infertility is a leading stigma for women and motherhood.

4.9.3. Infertility casts doubt upon a woman's gender identity. Can lead to marital instability, divorce or polygamous remarriage. Motherhood is a mandatory status for married Egyptian women.

4.10. Official adoption is not recognized by Islamic law.

4.11. Egyptian gynecologists estimate 1/3 of patients seek infertility services.

4.12. Infertility remains in the private sector.

5. "Barrenness amid Plenty"

5.1. Paradox of infertility

5.1.1. Its prevalence is greatest in those areas of the world where fertility is often highest.

5.2. Pronatalism: beliefs about the importance of motherhood, fatherhood, and the desirability of having children.

5.2.1. Reason: social security desires

5.2.2. Reason: Social power desires

5.2.3. Reason: Social Perpetuity desires

5.2.4. Both men and women view children as a route to gaining social power. Elites want heirs to family fortune. achievement of personal satisfaction and fulfillment.

6. Inhorn's limitations in research

6.1. Inability to participate in the lives of the women outside of the walls of the IVF clinic.

6.2. spending much less time observing the day to day operations of these clinics than talking to patients and physicians within them.

6.3. Learned a great deal from the laboratory physicians and lab directors.

6.4. New stories become old news quickly in this arena.

6.5. Treatment of poor and elite infertile women differ due to education, economic resources, and power within their marriages.