Laughter Out Of Place Chapters 4 & 5

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Laughter Out Of Place Chapters 4 & 5 von Mind Map: Laughter Out Of Place Chapters 4 & 5

1. Visit with Pedro Paulo

1.1. Pedro Paulo was incarcerated in the Ilha Grande prison (The Devil's Cauldron), September 1992.

1.1.1. He was serving a 15 year sentence for armed robbery.

1.1.2. Pedro was a fan of Reggae music, and had a girlfriend in Rocinha, Josilene, "who was pregnant with his child and considering having an abortion". (166) Pedro threatened: "Ela matou o meu filho. Agora vou ter que matar ela". In English: "She killed my child. Now I am going to have to kill her". (167) Pedro hated abortion and the women debated that men ought to take part in birth control, and it should not be the responsibility of only the woman. Pedro also believed that a man should have as may women as he wants. But woman should be monogamous.

1.2. Goldstein, Gloria, Zezinho, Zeca, and Felix all made the long trip to the island prison.

1.2.1. The group was split into male and female groups by the guards, and made to wait 8 hours plus. The groups were also strip searched and made to leave certain items behind.

1.2.2. Also in their visiting room was Amelia, who was visiting her brother Adhmar. Goldstein felt that Amelia may have been a "crente", a religious convert who makes herself available emotionally and/or sexually in a martyr like way to the prisoners. Goldstein was approached in the dark while sleeping by a male, who she thought was Pedro. It later turned out to be Adhmar. Goldstein used Gloria as a threat to the person thinking it was Pedro, but the threat worked just as well on Adhmar due to Gloria's reputation as a tough woman.

1.3. Goldstein finally met Gloria's first-born son, who was thirty and extremely tall and muscular, as well as articulate.

1.3.1. Gloria always lamented the fact that Pedro turned out to be a criminal despite being the most intelligent of her children. Pedro's love for the street and time in state child correctional institution were the things Gloria found to be the reasons for her sons life choices.

1.4. Upon Pedro Paulo's release, he went back to his gang and his old life in Rocinha, and Josilene had the baby and Pedro assumed fatherly responsibility. (169)

2. "The Killing Streets"

2.1. "The trend among the middle and upper classes in Brazil's major cities has been to move behind higher walls to protect themselves from what they perceive as the growing violence on the street". (172)

2.2. "death squads" would exterminate "street children".

2.2.1. The middle class is ambivalent to the death of these children.

2.3. "Fear of crime has served to legitimize private and illegal reactions". (172)

2.4. Street children are recruited to do the dirty work of organized favela gangs.

2.4.1. Children get off with lesser sentences.

3. x

4. Mirelli's Story

4.1. glorias favorite Goddaughter and cousin.

4.2. Inherited house from husbands parents.

4.3. Her story is similar to many women left out on the streets to be preyed upon by men.

4.4. Mirelli and her two sisters lived on the streets due to having 2 alcoholic parents, scavenging for food.

4.5. Mirella and her sisters stayed with Maria Antonia after the death of their mother.

5. Crime and Violence in Rio De janeiro

5.1. Rio: one of the most unequal cities in the world.

5.1.1. Crime and violence are experienced across a vast division of classes.

5.2. Middle and upper class preoccupied with crime.

5.2.1. The poor actually are exposed to much more crime than the middle or upper classes.

5.3. Goldsteins initial experience in Eterna was that it was a safe place.

5.3.1. Having the local gang led by a reasonable person led to a safer and more stable time.

5.4. Elite liberalism: "the granting of the right to civil liberties on a differential basis depending on some aspect of the person's social status and identity". (202)

5.5. Leader Dilmar and 4 other young men comprised of the local Eterna gang.

5.5.1. Dilmar approved of Goldsteins research and advised her of which elders to speak with about "local history".

5.5.2. Goldstein soon recognized the significance of the local gang and the extent of their influence on the community.

5.5.3. Gangs offer a sense of belonging and identity that low paying service jobs do not provide.

5.6. Drug use is viewed quite differently between lower class and upper/middle class.

5.6.1. Dangerous connotation among the poor and a bohemian meaning for the middle and upper class.

6. Private Matters

6.1. 1998 case of man sexual abusing and keeping captive his 2 step-daughters.

6.2. Adultery: Adriana, neighbor of Gloria and common law wife of Ciro, was having an affair with a man also in a common law marriage.

6.3. Case of a man wrongly accused of the rape of a 3 year old girl, who was burned despite knowledge of the true criminal's identity.

6.4. Police use their position to extort money from people.

6.5. Brown zones: state is not able to enforce it's legality.

6.5.1. Green zones: high degree of territorial penetration and a lower presence of the state in functional and class terms.

7. Policing as Social Control of Lower Classes

7.1. Risk of being homicide victim low during infancy

7.1.1. Risk increases dramatically during adolescence, peaks in 20-24 age group.

7.2. Different neighborhoods = different risks and levels of violence.

7.3. Violence: different intensities for different socioeconomic classes.

7.4. Poor are criminalized, bear the burden of corrupt dealings with police.

7.4.1. Cohesion in low-income neighborhoods built around common dislike and distrust of police.

7.4.2. Upper and middle classes granted certain amount of immunity and impunity Status and resources

7.4.3. poor's relationship with police "complex, ambivalent, and ambiguous". (229)

7.5. Caldeiras argument: Points to the ways in which the delegitimization of the rule of law becomes a viable alternative. (232)

7.6. Police accused of drug trafficking.

7.7. Local gangs are protectors from outside gangs, and also as mediators in the face of violent and corrupt police. (235)

7.8. Mingardi: organized crime has infiltrated the state.

7.8.1. focuses on the corrupt nature of the military police