Phonological Processing

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Phonological Processing von Mind Map: Phonological Processing

1. Most reading scientists agree that a core linguistic deficit underlies poor reading at all ages. At any age, poor readers as a group exhibit weaknesses in phonological processing and word recognition speed and accuracy, as do younger poor readers. At any age, when an individual's reading comprehension is more impaired than his or her listening comprehension, inaccurate and slow word recognition is the most likely cause (Moats, 2001).

1.1. Recognition of printed words depends on the ability to map speech sounds to letter symbols — the alphabetic principle — and to recognize letter sequences accurately and quickly — orthographic processing. The majority of poor readers who read below the 30th percentile in the intermediate and upper grades have either pronounced or residual needs for instruction in these basic skills (Moats, 2001).

1.1.1. Instruction that Works All of these approaches assume that older poor readers can learn to read if they are taught the foundation language skills they missed and they have ample opportunity to apply the skills in meaningful text reading. Each approach teaches language structure explicitly to match the developmental needs of the students and uses systematic, structured, and cumulative methods applied to age-appropriate text. These approaches teach language at all levels: sound, word, sentence, and passage. They unpack the building blocks of words, ensuring that students process them accurately, build fluency through ample practice, and teach students to engage actively the meanings in text (Moats, 2001)

1.1.2. What they need is what everyone needs, only they need more of it, with more precision, and with more careful adjustment because they find reading and writing more confusing. The good news is that with this increase in time and careful attention to the details of teaching that virtually all students can make tremendous growth in their literacy (Brandt, 2019)

2. Student Centered Reflective Teaching -Reflective teaching effectively aligns a teacher's underlying beliefs about learning and classroom practice. -Reflective teaching enables professional development. -Reflective teaching supports student-centered learning.

2.1. Three Ways to Practice Reflective Teaching -Peer observation -Record and evaluate your lessons -Self-reporting

2.1.1. A teacher of reading must be able to use a wide range of instructional practices, approaches, methods, and curriculum materials to support reading instruction: (1) organize and manage effective reading instruction appropriate across developmental levels, proficiency, and linguistic backgrounds; (2) implement a variety of appropriate strategies including individual, small group, and whole group reading instruction; (3) implement and reflect on the use of instructional practices, approaches, and methods, which support the cognitive, cultural, and linguistic differences of readers

2.1.2. Students need to know: • What am I learning? • What does it feel like when I am learning? • What does it feel like when I am not learning? • How am I doing? • How do I know? • How can I improve? • Where to next?

3. Co-Teaching Students with Mild to Moderate Disabilities Using Literature Based Instruction Inclusion classrooms have become the rule rather than the exception for most students with special needs.However, these students with disabilities need additional support and assistance if they are to be successful. Thus, the co-teaching model with the general education teacher and the special education teacher working together may help these students get the necessary individualized help they need without putting the added burden on the general education teacher (Swicegood & Miller, 2015).

3.1. Using High-Quality Children's Literature High quality literature enables teachers to provide authentic opportunities for all students to actively participate in the classroom. Using children’s literature and literacy activities helps connect learning to daily life. This connection is important as students with mild disabilities are often provided few opportunities to write and read for real audiences and for real purposes (Swicegood & Miller, 2015).

3.1.1. A well-sequenced and carefully designed co-teaching instructional model must include the instructional methods and teaching strategies that fit the content,the learning strategies that students will use to learn content, and the way progress monitoring will occur. Thus, effective instruction rests on three critical features; (1) Conspicuous strategies. (2) Procedural facilitators. (3) Mediated scaffolding (Swicegood & Miller, 2015).

4. Phonological processing is the ability to use the sounds of language to process both spoken and written language. The broad category definition of phonological processing includes phonological awareness, phonological working memory, and phonological retrieval.

4.1. The broad definition of phonology includes the organization or system of sounds within a language. Once the phonological system has been acquired for basic listening and speaking,children begin to develop phonological awareness—the awareness of words in sentences or syllables in words. Other aspects of phonological awareness include rhyme, alliteration, onset rime (word families), blending, segmenting, and manipulating sounds. At the most complex level of phonological awareness is phonemic awareness. Phonemic awareness is blending,segmenting, and manipulating words at the individual sound (phoneme) level (Brooke, Learning & Stone).

5. Children with a history of oral language impairment are more likely to present with reading difficulties than their peers (general population). Some research identified this increased likelihood to be as greatas four to five times more likely than their peers. It has been shown that children who struggle with phonemic awareness have significant difficulty acquiring phonic word-attack strategies (Brooke, Learning & Stone).

5.1. Due to the growing number of diverse profiles of learning needs, the classroom teacher faces the daunting task of providing sufficiently powerful instruction to meet the needs of all students. In order to help close the achievement gap for some of these students, teachers must use effective assessments to identify gaps and then provide instruction that is more intensive than typical instruction to help accelerate learning. Powerful or intensive instruction involves more than increased instructional time and smaller instructional groups. Instruction that is precisely targeted at the right level to the individual student provides clearer and more detailed explanations (i.e., explicit), corrective feedback, guided practice,and instructional sequences that are systematic (Brooke, Learning & Stone).

5.1.1. The key to assessment and instruction in oral language is assessing these skills early on and focusing instruction on building a foundation of these skills through listening comprehension and oral expression (Brooke, Learning & Stone).

6. Some students in the upper elementary grades through the high school grades still struggle to actually read the words they encounter. It makes sense for these students to receive thoughtful, age-appropriate instruction in word recognition and spelling. But working with words alone will not build the competence and dispositions that students need to read the increasingly complex texts in their academic subjects, nor will it motivate students to read voluntarily outside school. Teaching reading to older struggling students means paying attention to the full range of evidence on what these students need to grow as readers and writers (Ivey & Baker, 2004).

6.1. Students should spend most of their school reading time with texts that they can read and want to read. Students tell us that when we give them interesting materials that they can read without too much difficulty, they will read. Providing books that span the content areas, match students' reading levels, and encompass a variety of formats and genres is nonnegotiable if we want struggling readers to improve (Ivey & Baker, 2004).

6.1.1. Struggling readers—and even those who have no difficulty reading—need ongoing explanations and discussions about the process of reading and how to make sense of what they read. But rather than assign fill-in-the-blank exercises or test-like passages followed by comprehension questions, teachers should describe the mental activities involved in making sense of text and encourage students to share the specific processes that they use to build their personal understandings of what they read. Good instruction in reading comprehension does not happen in a short unit of study or within an intensive reading program. Rather, teaching about thoughtful reading should happen in every class and throughout the school year. Most important, it requires the expertise of the best reader in the classroom: the teacher (Ivey & Baker, 2004).

7. References Brooke, E., Learning, L., & Stone, R. The Critical Role of Oral Language in Reading for Title I and ELL Students. Cirino, P. T., Romain, M. A., Barth, A. E., Tolar, T. D., Fletcher, J. M., & Vaughn, S. (2013). Reading skill components and impairments in middle school struggling readers. Reading and writing, 26(7), 1059-1086. Ivey, G., & Baker, M. I. (2004). Phonics instruction for older students? Just say no. Educational leadership, 61(6), 35-39. Moats, L. C. (2001). When older students can't read. Educational Leadership, 58(6), 36-41. Swicegood, P., & Miller, M. (2015). Co-Teaching Students with Mild to Moderate Disabilities Using Literature-Based Reading Instruction. Texas Journal of Literacy Education, 3(2), 69-80.