Teaching Learn and Development

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Teaching Learn and Development von Mind Map: Teaching Learn and Development

1. Learning Styles

1.1. Constructivist Views of Learning

1.1.1. Learners are active in constructing their own personal knowledge – they actively seek meaning • Social negotiating is important to knowledge construction /learning • Learning includes developing skills to solve problems, think critically, answer questions, accept multiple views • Self-determination is needed to further knowledge development

1.1.2. Piaget: Basic Learning Instinct

1.1.2.1. Schemes/Schemas: organizing behaviours and thoughts into coherent systems • Adaptation: adjusting to one’s surrounding environment

1.2. Growth Mindset

1.2.1. Carol Dweck

1.2.2. Understanding that effort is the path to mastery

1.2.3. Learning from Critism

1.2.4. embrace challenges

1.2.5. leads to a desire to learn

1.2.6. Around here - we don't look backwards for very long...... We keep moving forward, opening new doors and doing new things because we are curious.... and curiosity keeps leading us down new paths -Walt Disney

1.3. Principles of Development

1.3.1. Orderly progression/gradual process • Periods of rapid and slow growth • Quantitative and qualitative changes • Individuals develop at different rates • Genetics set developmental potential • Environment determines potential realized

1.4. Student Learning Profiles

1.4.1. - Used to get to know student

1.4.2. creating profiles is ued to create a learning environment based on accountability

1.4.3. allows students to be aware of who they are and what type of learners they are

1.5. Universal Instructional Design

1.5.1. Instructional system designed and delivered with the needs of the least independently able students in mind • Results in instruction that is accessible and effective for all students • What teacher actions are necessary in order to adhere to the principles of UID?

1.6. Inquiry based learning

1.6.1. General - specific question = student understanding

1.6.2. Key Elements

1.6.2.1. Exploration, invention, application

1.6.3. Students Prior Knowledge

1.6.3.1. Not important - students can produce knowledge from observation

1.6.4. Teacher Role

1.6.4.1. leader, coach, modle, facilitator, source of driving questions

1.6.5. Student Role

1.6.5.1. Interprets, explains, hypthesizing, designing and directing own tasks, sharing authority for answers

1.6.6. Specific Outcomes

1.6.6.1. conceptual understanding of principals, comprehension of the nature of inquiry and grasp of the applications of knowledge

1.7. Problem Based Learning

1.7.1. Key Elements

1.7.1.1. identification problem, activating prior knowledge, elaboration of knowledge

1.7.2. Students prior knowledge/skills

1.7.2.1. prior knowledge and skills application is important

1.7.3. teacher role

1.7.3.1. facilitators and coach rather than leader

1.7.4. Student role

1.7.4.1. determining whether a problem exisits, creating an exact statement of the problem, identifying information, data, and learning goals. source of driving questions

1.7.5. Specific outcomes

1.7.5.1. effective problem-solving skills, self-directed, lifelong learning skills, effective collaborations

1.8. Who are your students?? Raising the bar and closing the gap can occur when school boards, schools and educators focus on their planning, instruction, interventions and responses on the following four key tenets: • Knowing your students • Knowing where they are in their learning • Knowing where they need to go in their learning • Knowing how to get the to where they need to go in their learning • Knowing what steps to take when they don’t

1.9. Special Educations

1.9.1. •Accommodating the special learning needs of students with exceptionalities •Specialized instruction based on the assessment of students’ abilities

1.9.2. Individual Differences

1.9.2.1. Labelling 1.What are the advantages of & problems with labels? 2.What is the difference between a disability and a handicap? 3.What is people-first language? 4.Do your friends, family members, professors … did you associate teacher and faculty advisor use people-first language? Why is this so important? - With two partners or elbow partners, 3 minutes to discuss your two assigned questions.

1.9.2.1.1. Labeling Exceptional Students DISABILITIES versus HANDICAPS •Disability = inability to do something •Handicap = a disadvantage in certain situations Being blind is a handicap if you want to drive but not if you want to compose music or talk on the phone! PEOPLE -FIRST LANGUAGE •Refer to “students with learning disabilities” NOT “learning disabled students”

1.9.2.2. High-Incidence Exceptionalities •Mild disabilities •Typically include learning disabilities, behavioural disorders, giftedness, and intellectual disabilities

1.9.2.3. Low-Incidence Exceptionalities •Moderate and severe disabilities •Typically include autism, hearing and visual impairments, serious health impairments, and multiple disabilities

2. Classroom Management

2.1. Proximity

2.1.1. Effective Communication

2.2. Touch

2.3. Students Name

2.4. Gesture

2.5. The "Look"

2.6. The "Pause"

2.7. Ignore

2.8. Signal to Begin/Signal For attention

2.9. deal with the problem student

3. Assessment

3.1. Planning for Assesment

3.1.1. Questions to consdier

3.1.1.1. What will be taught • When it will be taught • How and when learning will be assessed • What teaching methods and materials will be used • How to establish the type of learning environment needed

3.2. Diagnostic Assessment

3.2.1. - Determining the starting point for instruction - Initiating instruction at the right curricular junctures

3.3. Blooms taxonomy

3.3.1. • Hierarchical classification of cognitive learning objectives • Six levels 1. Knowledge 2. Comprehension 3. Application 4. Analysis 5. Synthesis 6. Evaluation

3.4. Cognitive Verbs

3.4.1. • Indicate the thinking required for particular learning objectives • Classified according to six cognitive processes: 1. Remembering 2. Understanding 3. Applying 4. Analyzing 5. Creating 6. Evaluating

3.5. Assessment serves different purposes at different times: it may be used to find out what students already know and can do; it may be used to help students improve their learning; or may be used to let students and their parents know how much they have learned within a prescribed amount of time

3.6. Assessment must be planned and purposeful • BACKWARD DESIGN • What do I expect students to be able to do at the end of the course (CURRICULUM) • How will I know that they have learned these things? (ASSESSMENT) • What lessons will be most effective in helping students demonstrate that they have learned these things?(INSTRUCTION)

3.7. Assessment and instructions are inseparable because effective assessment informs learning

3.8. Standardized Testing

3.8.1. Standardized Testing in Canada • Federal • Achievement levels of 13 year olds (math, reading, and science) • Provincial/Territorial • Different uses including math and literacy testing at certain grade levels and Grade 12 exit exams

3.8.2. Standardized Tests • Contain the same questions for all test-takers • Are administered to all test-takers in same fashion • Are scored in systematic and uniform manner • Are different from teacher-made tests and aptitude tests

3.8.2.1. Test Types • Criterion-Referenced • Student’s score determined by comparing performance to established criteria • Norm-Referenced • Student’s score determined by comparing performance to that of other students

3.8.3. Original purpose: •To assess effectiveness of instruction

3.8.4. Criticisms of Standardized Testing • Biased tests • Stressful for students and teachers • Results in teaching to the test • Takes up too much time • Does not enhance student learning • Content of tests does not reflect instruction

3.8.5. Constructing Better Standardized Tests • All tests are imperfect instruments ~ • Even the highest quality tests are problematic if used for improper applications

4. Student

4.1. Student Centered Learning

4.2. Development

4.2.1. Physucal

4.2.2. cognative

4.2.2.1. executive functioning

4.2.2.1.1. • Prefrontal cortex • Takes 20 years to become fully functional • Controls decision-making, goal setting, controlling attention, cognitive flexibility, information processing, and managing risktaking

4.2.2.2. Scafolding/Tiering

4.2.2.2.1. Backwards Design

4.2.2.3. The Cognative Perspective

4.2.2.3.1. 1. Mental processes exist and they are important to learning.  Examples of mental processes: thinking, knowing, understanding, remembering, planning, selfmonitoring 2. Learners are “•Sources of plans, intentions, goals, ideas, memories, and emotions actively used to attend to, select, and construct meaning from stimuli and knowledge from experience”Ž (Wittrock, 1982, pp. 1…2, in text) 3. Learners bring knowledge to each new learning situation, and that affects what they learn from that situation (more related knowledge = better learning).

4.2.2.4. A Good Thinker

4.2.2.4.1. Uses cognitive strategies effectively

4.2.2.4.2. uses short-term and long-term memory efficiently

4.2.2.4.3. has attained significant metacognitive skills

4.2.3. social

4.2.3.1. Student Dilemmas

4.2.3.1.1. Individualism Act within a unique identity and exclusive purpose

4.2.3.1.2. Collectivism Act within a shared identity and common purpose

4.3. Early Learning

4.3.1. The Best predictor of future academic success is early mastery of literacy and numeracy skills

4.4. Motivating Students to Learn

4.4.1. Innovative

4.4.1.1. Challenging and meaningful tasks

4.4.2. Self-regulation

4.4.2.1. being able to effectively use learning strategies

4.4.3. assessment

4.4.3.1. being required to demonstrate knowledge

4.4.4. Caring for students

4.5. How Students Learn

4.5.1. Knowledge-centeredness

4.5.2. learner-centeredness

4.5.3. community-centeresedness

4.5.4. assessment-centeredness

4.6. SOI information Processing Model

4.6.1. Select relevant information •Organize the information •Integrate the organized information with prior knowledge

5. Teacher

5.1. Reflective Practitioners

5.2. • are open-minded and amenable to change • embrace self-enquiry • feel they have an ethical responsibility to best facilitate their students’ learning • choose to analyze and reflect on their practice • assess the effects of their teaching in order to improve their practice

5.3. Planning

5.3.1. Exemplary Environments

5.3.1.1. Result of Effective Planning

5.3.2. Excellent Instruction

5.3.2.1. Instructional Planning

5.3.2.1.1. What is your Approach to teaching?

5.3.2.1.2. What type of Methodology will I use?

5.3.3. Enahnced Student Learning

5.3.4. Backwards Design

5.3.4.1. Has the student acquired the prerequisite skills? • Does the student typically learn slower than others? • Has the student had enough practice? • Was the material presented in meaningful ways?

5.3.4.2. Curricular Planning

5.3.4.2.1. • Determine the curricula for the year • Determine the curricula for each term • Break the curricula down into units • Determine what will be taught on a daily basis

5.3.4.3. Developing curricular units and lessons from the same instructional goals/objectives that are used to develop the assessment tools for that curriculum

5.4. Instructional Approaches

5.4.1. instructional strategies

5.4.1.1. cooperative learning

5.4.1.2. graphic organizers

5.4.1.3. homework and questions

5.5. Teacher Centered

5.5.1. Teacher Determines content, provides direction, and sets academic and social tone

5.6. Student-centered approach

5.6.1. Teacher adopts constructivist perspective and acknowledges that students actively construct their own understandings

5.7. Instructional Appraches

5.7.1. Universal Design for Learning

5.7.2. Differentiated Instruction

5.7.3. Response to Intervention

5.8. Understanding Learning

5.9. Teaching for Critical Thinking

5.9.1. Ask not only what happened, but “how” and “why” Examine “facts” to determine if there is enough evidence to support them Argue in a reasoned way rather than through emotions Recognize that there may be more than one right answer or explanation Compare various answers and then judge which is the best Evaluate and possibly question what others say Ask questions and speculate beyond what we already know

5.10. Teaching for Understanding

5.10.1. "Teaching for understanding" is another central premise of Understanding by Design. There should be coherent curriculum design and clear distinctions between big ideas and essential questions. Teachers should tell students about big ideas and essential questions, performance requirements, and evaluative criteria at the beginning of the unit or course. Students should be able to describe the goals (big ideas and essential questions) and performance requirements of the unit or course. The learning environment should have high expectations and incentives for all students to come to understand the big ideas and answer the essential questions.

5.11. Diverse Learners Teacher’s attitudes and expectations, as well as their knowledge of how to incorporate the cultures, experiences, and needs of their students into their teaching, significantly influence what students learn .

5.12. Building a Culturally Responsive Practice

5.12.1. A culturally responsive practice has a broad cultural knowledge and instructional base that grows and changes

5.12.1.1. Teachers must know the following: Their own cultural assumptions How to inquire about students’ backgrounds How to develop teaching approaches and curriculum to meet needs of culturally diverse learners How to establish links across cultures

6. Learning Environment

6.1. Indigenous Education

6.1.1. Incorperate Indigenous Practices into the classroom

6.1.2. Land Acknowledgement

6.1.3. Aboriginal Education Risk Factors Early school failures Moving from school to school Lack of parent support Lack of teachers with knowledge of Aboriginal studies Living in remote communities Lack of resources Special needs

6.1.4. Aboriginal Education Protective Factors Early intervention  Resiliency  Positive self-image  Family engagement  Community involvement  Relevant programming  Aboriginal role models

6.2. Constructivist-based Classrooms

6.2.1. Complex, challenging learning environments • Real world situations • Social negotiation – collaborative work • Multiple representations of content • Making students aware of the knowledge construction process –becoming self-regulated learners • Student-centered instruction; student ownership of learning

6.2.2. Applications of Constructivist-based Classrooms

6.2.2.1. Complex, challenging learning environments • Real world situations • Social negotiation – collaborative work • Multiple representations of content • Making students aware of the knowledge construction process –becoming self-regulated learners • Student-centered instruction; student ownership of learning

6.2.3. Applications of Constructivist-based Classrooms

6.2.3.1. • Dialogue & Instructional Conversations • Inquiry Learning • Problem-based Learning • Teacher and Peer Learning • Cognitive Apprenticeships • Collaborative Learning

6.3. Contiguity and Classical Conditioning

6.3.1. Operant Conditioning 4. Applied Behaviour Analysis 5. Putting it All Together 6. Thinking About Behaviour 7. Problems and Issues 8. Diversity and Convergences in Behavioural Learning

6.4. Direct Instruction Schools

6.4.1. Metaphor: Child as empty vessel metaphor More passive learners Learning is more compartmentalized, 10AM it’s math!

6.4.2. Clear learning objectives

6.4.3. well planned lessons

6.4.4. explixit teaching

6.5. Developmentally Appropriate Schools

6.5.1. Metaphor: Child as Explorer Have active learners More playful learning (guided play) Whole child approach -- brains and heart Integrated curricula

6.6. Positive Learning Environments

6.6.1. Inclusivity

6.6.1.1. Inclusion Children are different All children can learn Different abilities, ethnic groups, size, age, background, gender Change the system to fit the child

6.6.1.1.1. Components of ‘Inclusion Fully inclusive schools are characterized by: •Teachers who treat each student as a uniquely important individual and who are knowledgeable about research based practices that assist students with diverse learning needs to learn; •Program philosophy which emphasizes the value of diversity, multiculturalism, social justice, and belonging for everyone

6.6.1.1.2. Children are different All children can learn Different abilities, ethnic groups, size, age, background, gender Change the system to fit the child

6.6.1.2. Increasing Diversity in Schools Languages spoken Aboriginal students One-parent families Same-sex couples Newcomers to Canada Religions practised

6.7. Multicultural Education

6.7.1. Diversity valued No culture considered dominant  Dominant culture stressed Surviving in real world  Diversity and dominant culture Valued striking a balance

6.7.1.1. Content integration Equity pedagogy Empowering school culture and social structure Prejudice reduction Knowledge construction process