The Founding of Singapore

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The Founding of Singapore by Mind Map: The Founding of Singapore

1. The 1819 Singapore Treaty. (page 4)

1.1. A small crowd gathered at Padang for an important event.

1.2. Sir Stamford Raffles welcomed Tengku Hussein, also known as the Sultan of Johor, to the signing ceremony.

1.3. Raffles, Tengku Hussein, and the Temenggong signed a treaty allowing the British to set up a trading settlement in the south part of Singapore.

1.4. In return Sultan would receive $5,000 per year, and the Temenggong would eceive $3,00 per year.

1.5. They raised and a volley was fired by guns on the shore and from the ships.

2. The Dutch and the British in the Malay Archipelago. (page 5-6)

2.1. Dutch Monopoly of Trade (The happening in the Malay Archipelago in the early 19th century).

2.1.1. During those times, the Dutch controlled most of the Archipelago trade.

2.1.1.1. They could control it because they occupied many areas in the Archipelago including Melaka and Java.

2.2. The Dutch didn't want any other European power to have share in the Archipelago trade to have power in the trade.

2.2.1. They didn't allow any of the British nor the Europeans to trade at any of the Dutch-controlled ports except Batavia and Java.

3. The British reaction to Dutch monopoly of Trade (page 6-7)

3.1. The British manage to get 2 trading settlements at Penang and Bencoolen.

3.2. As the British also had trade relations with India and China.

3.3. Penang served as a stopover point for British ships to take on supplies as they sailed rom India China.

3.4. Raffles was appointed lieutenant Governor of Bencoolen. From there, he saw how the Dutch were spreading their monopoly of trade to more parts of Archipelago. Raffles strongly wrote: "It is clear that the object of the Dutch is to control all the trade in the Archipelago. By controlling the only passes to the Archipelago, namely the Straits of Melaka and the Sunda Straits, they have also in their power at all times to disrupt our China trade."

3.5. Hence these 2 settlements were unable to prevent the Dutch from having complete control of the trade in the region.

3.6. Together with his assistant, Major William Farquhar, Raffles began the search for a third British settlement.

4. From a fishing village to a British Possesion (page 7-8)

4.1. On 28 January, 1819, raffles, from his ship the 'Indiana', caught sight of Singapore island itself.

4.2. Singapore was covered by jungle. But there was a small group of Malay, Chinese and Orang Laut settlers on the island. They depended their survival on fruits and fishing.

4.3. The Chinese lived near the Temenggong's village, and grew gambier, on the nearby hills.

5. Choosing of Singapore

5.1. Raffles thought that Singapore is a ideal place to start a new trading settlement.

5.1.1. He wrote: (page 8) "At Singapore I found advantages far superior to what the other islands had to offer... ...good fortune to discover one of the safest harbours in the area [from stormy winds]..."

5.2. Heard that no Dutch in the island.

6. A British trading settlement

6.1. January 29, 1819, Raffles met with Farquhar, landed on the island and met with the Temenggong.

6.2. The Temenggong agreed to the trading settlement, but said that Raffles was under the control of Sultan Abdul Rahman.

6.3. Thinking of a plan, Raffles made Tengku Hussein come to Singapore

7. A British Possesion

7.1. The treaty signed on 6 February, 1819 only gave British permission to start trading settlement in Singapore.

7.2. Singapore officially became British possession in August 1824. when a new treaty was formed with Sultan and British.