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Nutrition by Mind Map: Nutrition

1. I. Suboptimal Nutrition

1.1. 1. Define suboptimal nutrition, nutritional disorders, malnutrition

1.1.1. Malnutrition Deficiences, excesses, or imbalances in a person's intake of energy and / or nutrients Undernutrition Overnutrition Imbalances

1.1.2. Suboptimal Nutrition / Marginal Deficiency State between adequate and inadequate nutrition intake Less than optimal dose of a nutrient chronically leading to gradual depletion Less than DRI No specific deficiency symptoms shown Osteoporosis Neural Tube Defects Fetal Malformations Anemia BeriBeri (Alcoholics)

1.1.3. Nutrition disorders 1. Dietary intake doesn't contain right amount of nutrients for healthy cellular or physiological functioning Changing Nutrient Needs through Lifecycle 2. cannot correctly absorb nutrients from food

1.2. 2. List at least 3 three nutrients of concern for suboptimal nutrition

1.2.1. Nutrients Phytochemicals Zoochemicals Shortfall Nutrients Vitamin A Vitamin E Magnesium Folate Iron Potassium Vitamin D Calcium Food Groups Fruits Vegetables Grains Dairy Protein

1.3. 3. Identify three causes and/or risk factors for suboptimal nutrition

1.3.1. Causes and Risk Factors

2. II. Macronutrients

2.1. 1. Illustrate 3 Macronutrient disorders, 2. Recognize macronutrient suboptimal nutrition 3. Describe at least 1 nutritional disorder associated with energy and/or macronutrients

2.1.1. Essential Macronutrients

2.1.2. Energy Nutrient/Malnutrition Disorders

2.1.3. Protein Calorie Malnutrition in Industrialized Countries Trauma / illness Marasmus COPD CHF Cancer HIV Kwashiorkor-like Hypermetabolic acute states/illness

2.1.4. Nutrient Deficiencies / Malnutrition with Bariatric Surgery Protein Iron Vitamin B12 Folic Acid Vitamin D Calcium

3. V. Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition

3.1. 1. Enteral and Parenterl nutrition

3.1.1. Enteral Feeding that uses GI tract Preferred method Feeding tube delivers part/all of daily requirements Indications Tube placement

3.1.2. Parenteral Delivery of calories and nutrients into a vein Indications

3.2. Refeeding Syndrome

3.2.1. Trigggered by TPN in patients who are malnourished at baseline anorexics alcoholics

3.2.2. Increased blood sugar Sudden increase in protein synthesis fat synthesis glycogen synthesis Synthesis requires electrolytes, which quickly become depleted

4. IV. Eating for Health

4.1. Popular Diets

4.1.1. Diet Camps High Protein Paleo Low Carb Keto Paleo High fat Keto Low Fat Pritikin Ornish Fasting / Low calorie Fasting Diet Intermittent Fasting Slimfast

4.1.2. Gimmick Diets and Other Diets

4.2. Recommended Diets

4.2.1. 1. Mediterranean Diet

4.2.2. 2. DASH Diet

4.2.3. 2. Flexitarian Diet

4.3. Appropriate tool for identifying good diets

4.3.1. MyPlate 3/4 plate plant sources 1/4 plate animal sources colorful moderation variety

4.3.2. Registered Dietitian

4.4. Types of supplements

4.4.1. Vitamins and Minerals Multivitamins, Vitamin D, Calcium, Vitamin C, Vitamin B/B complex

4.4.2. Specialty Supplements Omega 3 / FAs, Fiber, Probiotics, glucosaomine/chondroitin, CoQ10

4.4.3. Herbals and Botanicals Regular green tea, garlic, cranberry, echinacea, ginseng

4.4.4. Sports Nutrition / Weight management Protein supplement, energy drinks and gels, garcinia cambogia, green coffee, hydration drinks and gells

4.5. Resources

4.5.1. Natural Medicines Database

4.5.2. NIH Supplement Resource

4.6. Drugs that can cause nutrient disorders

4.6.1. PPIs Hypocalcemia Hypomagnesemia

4.6.2. Antacids (Long-Term) Vitamin B 12 deficiency

4.6.3. Antihypertensives Affect body levels of potassium, magnesium, calcium

4.6.4. Cholestyramine Decreased absorption of fat-soluble vitamins B12 Folic acid Calcium

5. III. Micronutrients

5.1. 1. Illustrate 3 micronutrient disorders 2. Recognize micronutrient disorders 3. Describe at least 1 nutritional disorder/malnutrition associated with micronutrients

5.1.1. Essential Micronutrients Micronutrients from Food Groups

5.1.2. Common Nutrient Deficiencies Iron Anemia Causes Foods High in iron Vitamin B12 Anemia Inability to absorb B12 in Diet Folate Anemia Inadequate dietary intake Folate-rich foods Vitamin D Diseases of inadequate Vitamin D Poor dietary intake Calcium Diseases of Inadequate intake High risk groups Supplementation to reduce risk of Vitamin D anc Calcium Food sources

5.1.3. Effect of Inflammation on Nutrients :arrow_up: C-Reactive Protein (CRP) :arrow_down: Serum B6 :arrow_down: Vitamin C :arrow_down: Vitamin A :arrow_down: Vitamin D :arrow_down: Folate :arrow_up: Ferritin