Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. The Politics of Education

1.1. Four Purposes of Education

1.1.1. 1. Intellectual- To teach basic cognitive skills such as core academics; Reading, writing, mathematics, sciences, etc.

1.1.2. 2. Political- To instill patriotism and prepare students to participate in political order.

1.1.3. 3. Social- To help solve social problems and teach various roles, behaviors, and values of society.

1.1.4. 4. Economic- To prepare students for later occupational roles in life.

1.2. Perspective

1.2.1. 1. Definition of Educational Problems- (Conservative Perspective) Educational problems are due to multiple issues such as: Decline of standards, decline of cultural literacy, decline of values, and decline of authority in schools.

1.2.2. 2. The Role of School-(Conservative Perspective) Providing necessary educational training in order to provide opportunity to the hard working and talented individuals.

1.2.3. 3. Unequal Educational Performance- (Liberal Perspective) Different life chances that students or groups of students begin school with provide them with more advantages compared to other individuals or groups.

2. The History of Education

2.1. A Reform Movement

2.1.1. 1.The Progressive Movement was an important reform movement that focused on education supporting growth of children and curriculum being tailored to stages to child development. This was known as a child centered reform movement.

2.2. Historical Interpretation

2.2.1. 1. Democratic-Liberal interpretation- Primarily related to two processes: Popularization and multitudinous. It is believed that social goals are becoming equal in important of intellectual goals of education. U.S education is interpreted optimistically, and the democratic-liberals believe balance in education is key.

3. The Sociology of Education

3.1. Relation Between School and Society

3.1.1. 1. Functional Theories- Educational reform from a functional standpoint should create structure, programs, and curriculum that over all enhance and encourage social unity within schools.

3.1.2. 2. Conflict Theories- Unlike the functionalist view, conflict theory is based upon the struggle between dominant and subordinate groups. Conflict theories emphasize struggle between school and society, the fight against antagonisms. Glue of Society: Economic, political, cultural, and military power.

3.1.3. 3. Interactional Theories- Primarily critiques of the functional and conflict theories. This theory believes the two theories mentioned previously are very abstract and the relation between school and society should reflect structural aspects and interactional aspects fully.

3.2. Effects of Schooling on Individuals

3.2.1. 1. Inadequate Schools- Inequalities in inadequate school is not preparing students for a productive and successful future. The social value and actual educational experience in elite schools is far better than schools for minority children.

3.2.2. 2. Tracking- This refers to the placement of students in either vocational tracks or educational tracks. The placement is related to social class and race. Those placed in vocational tracks lack the opportunities and resources that their higher-track peers receive. This has a direct effect on cognitive development.

3.2.3. 3. Gender- Schools produce inequalities through gender discrimination by influencing girls to lower goals and aspirations, sending subliminal messages, and stereotyping normal classroom behavior for gender.

3.2.4. 4. Teacher Behavior- Labels placed upon minority and working class students have a direct effect on self esteem and performance. They are often trapped in the cycle of low expectation- low performance. Teacher's labels and expectations for students can directly effect their actual performance.

3.2.5. 5. Peer Groups and Alienation- Student created cultures and labels play a role in shaping educational experiences for each individual. Rather than be a collection of individuals, schools socialize and sort select students which create the future societies.

4. The Philosophy of Education

4.1. Existentialism

4.1.1. 1. Generic Notations- Individuals are put upon earth alone, and are supposed to rationalize the chaos in their lives. They are constantly becoming, creating chaos, and creating good and evil. There is the belief that each person can make a difference in the world.

4.1.2. 2. Key Researchers- Many trace existentialism back to the bible. Other contributors to this philosophy: Soren Kierkegaard, Martin Buber, Karl Jaspers, and Jean Paul Sartre.

4.1.3. 3. Goal of Education- Education needs to focus on each person's needs, cognitively and effectively. Education should include the topics non-rational and the rational world.

4.1.4. 4. Role of the Teacher- Teachers should take risks, surround themselves with different types of students, and help their students become "wide awake".

4.1.5. 5. Methods of Instruction- Each child has a unique learning style and the teacher should find out which style works best for each student. Teachers should assist students in seeing the world through asking questions, activities, and working together.

4.1.6. 6. Curriculum- Curriculum should be heavily based towards humanities. They believe in exposing children at young ages to problems and possibilities, horrors, and accomplishments that humankind creates.

5. Schools as Organizations

5.1. Governance

5.1.1. Federal Level, Senator- Richard Shelby

5.1.2. Federal Level, House of Representatives- Mo Brooks (5th District)

5.1.3. State Superintendent- Dr. Tommy Bice

5.1.4. State School Board Representative-Ella B. Bell

5.1.5. Local School Board Members- Mickey Millsap

5.1.6. Local Superintendent- Ed Richardson

5.2. Change Within School Processes and School Cultures

5.2.1. 1. Conflict is a necessary part of change- Democratizing schools allows for previously hidden problems to surface. All staff must be ready to manage and resolve crisis.

5.2.2. 2. New Behaviors Must Be Learned- Building communication and trust, allowing leadership, and learning new communication skills, collaboration, and conflict resolutions are necessary.

5.2.3. 3. Team Building Must Extend to the Entire School- Allowing shared decision making must involve everyone, to avoid resistance.

5.2.4. 4. Process and Content are Interrelated-This is when the openness and trust is tested. The usefulness and ability to influence future commitments between staff is shown.

6. Curriculum and Pedagogy

6.1. Two Dominant Traditions of Teaching

6.1.1. 1. The Developmentalist

6.1.2. 2. The Social Meliorist

6.2. My Choice of Theory: Develop-mentalist Curriculum

6.2.1. This Curriculum Theory relates to the needs and interest of the student, compared to focusing on societies needs and interests. The main aspect of this theory is the relationship between the child and the curriculum. This theory also places emphasis on making content taught meaningful and helping education come to life. The teacher in this theory is seen as someone who helps the child with self growth.

7. Equality of Opportunity

7.1. Responses to The Coleman Study (1982)

7.1.1. Responses- Differences among schools do make a difference. Private schools are more effective learning environments because of emphasizes placed on academics and discipline used. Private schools demand more from students compared to public schools.

7.2. Educational Outcomes

7.2.1. 1. Race- Studies show that African-Americans have a higher drop out rate than White students. Minorities have on average lower scores on standardized tests. The minority students receive fewer educational opportunities and therefore their rewards are less also.

7.2.2. 2. Class- Students in different social classes have different educational opportunities. Working-class families have lower expectations for their children to stay in school. Labeling the students in poverty social class also shows negative effects on students perseverance to stay in school. Parental income directly relates to a student's achievements and opportunities.

7.2.3. 3. Gender- In today's studies women are far less likely to drop out of school. In the last 20 years gender in relation to educational attainment has been reduced. However, occupational attainment related to gender inequality is still in speculation.

8. Educational Inequality

8.1. Cultural Difference Theories

8.1.1. 1. Correspondence Theory- suggests that working-class students adapt to unequal aspects of class structure.

8.1.2. 2. Anthropologist John Ogbu argues that African-American children do less well in school because they adapt to their oppressed position in society.

8.2. School Centered Explanations

8.2.1. 1. Individual differences in intelligence or initiative.

8.2.2. 2. Student differences prior to entering school.

8.2.3. 3. Differences between school processes are central to explaining inequalities.

8.2.4. 4. Differences between instructional methods used.

9. Educational Reform

9.1. School Based Reforms

9.1.1. 1. School-Business Partnerships- Concern with schools not producing graduates with the ability to revitalize the U.S. economy started the creation of partnerships. The partnerships were created to help assist and train these graduates. This reform has not showed great success.

9.1.2. 2. Privatization- Private education companies became involved with public education through programs such as supplemental tutoring. Success rates so far are mixed.

9.2. Societal, economical, community, or political reforms

9.2.1. 1. Full Service and Community Schools- In this reform schools function as community centers that plan to educate the whole community. The community-based reform is focused on positively impacting the educational, physical, psychological, and social needs of the community. Designed to target/improve high risk neighborhoods, they function as full service preventative measures and support systems.

9.2.2. 2. Harlem Children's Zone- This reform is focused on positively changing the rough neighborhoods instead of removing children from them. Participants are recruited to be in programs to learn how to speak academically with their children, provide healthy home environments, and provide discipline for their children from birth to promote high expectations and higher student achievement because of this.